Operation Musketeer involved the Antecedent regiments of the Royal Green Jackets
Operation Musketeer (French: Opération Mousquetaire) was the Anglo-French-Israeli plan for the invasion of Egypt to capture the Suez Canal during the Suez Crisis. Israel had the additional objective to open the Straits of Tiran.
Headed by British Army General Charles Keightley, it was conducted in the November of 1956 in close coordination with the Israeli armored thrust into the Sinai, which was called Operation Kadesh. Egypt’s government, led by Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser, was seeking political control over the canal, an effort resisted by the Europeans. The army was originally to land at Alexandria, but the location was later switched to Port Said since a landing at Alexandria would have been opposed by most of the Egyptian army, necessitating the deployment of an armoured division. Furthermore, a preliminary bombardment of a densely populated area would have involved tens of thousands of civilian casualties. The naval bombardment of Port Said was rendered less effective by the decision to only use 4.5-inch guns instead of large caliber guns, in order to minimise the number of civilian casualties.
The final land order of battle involved the Royal Marine Commando Brigade, the 16th Parachute Brigade, and the 3rd Infantry Division. To bring these formations to war establishment, the regular army reserve and selected national service reservists were mobilised. Most of the latter were sent to units in home stations (Britain and Germany) to replace regulars posted to the Musketeer force. Lieutenant General Sir Hugh Stockwell was appointed to command the landing force. A French parachute brigade joined 16th Parachute Brigade as it returned to Cyprus. The Commando Brigade completed refresher training in shore landings from helicopters, in association with the Mediterranean fleet, which was preparing to support the amphibious operation. Over the summer the Royal Air Force selected a range of targets whose loss would cripple Egyptian resistance.
Details of the secret plan for Israeli forces to invade the Sinai desert were revealed to the Chiefs of the Defence staff in October. On the 29th of October Israeli armour, preceded by parachute drops on two key passes, thrust south into the Sinai, routing local Egyptian forces within five days. Affecting to be alarmed by the threat of fighting along the Suez Canal, the UK and France issued a twelve hour ultimatum on the 30th of October to the Israelis and the Egyptians to cease fighting. When, as expected, no response was given, Operation Musketeer was launched.
The air offensive began. The 3rd Division, minus the Guards Brigade, embarked on the 1st of November. The 45th Commando and 16th Parachute Brigade landed by sea and air on the 5th of November. Although landing forces quickly established control over major canal facilities, the Egyptians were able to sink obstacles in the canal, rendering it unusable. The Anglo-French air offensive suppressed Egyptian airfields not already attacked by the Israelis, but failed to destroy oil stocks or cripple the Egyptian army. Cairo Radio continued to broadcast. The 3rd Battalion Parachute group captured El Cap airfield by airborne assault. The remaining units, held back initially for deep airborne targets, travelled by sea to Port Said. The Commando Brigade captured all its objectives. The French parachutists took Port Fuad, opposite Port Said. Elements of the 16th Parachute Brigade led by Brigadier M.A.H. Butler and a contingent of the Royal Tank Regiment set off south along the canal bank on 6 November to capture Ismailia.
Worldwide reaction against Musketeer was massive and negative. The United States unexpectedly led condemnations of the action at the United Nations and in other forums, marking a sharp break in the “special relationship” between the United States and the United Kingdom. Of the countries in the Commonwealth, only Australia, South Africa and New Zealand supported the military operation, with Canada strongly opposing it. Just before midnight Brigadier Butler was ordered to stop on the hour, when a ceasefire would come into effect. This raised a difficulty. There were Egyptian forces ahead; the British column was in open desert with no defensible feature to hand. Brigadier Butler compromised, advancing until 0:15 a.m. to reach El Cap, where he sited the 2nd Battalion of the Parachute Regiment, with supporting detachments.
While the military operation itself had been completely successful, political pressure from the United States obliged the British and French governments to accept the ceasefire terms drawn up by the United Nations. The 3rd Division landed to relieve the parachutists. While accepting a United Nations Emergency Force to replace the Anglo-French presence, Nasser nevertheless ensured the Canal could not be used by sinking or otherwise disabling 49 ships in the channel. Anglo-French forces were withdrawn by the 22nd of December.
End of the operation
When the United States threatened to devalue the British currency (the Pound Sterling), the British cabinet was divided. Prime Minister Sir Anthony Eden called a ceasefire, without Israeli or French officials being notified. This caused France to doubt the reliability of their allies. A few months later, French president René Coty ordered the creation of the brand new military experiments facility C.S.E.M. in the Sahara. It was used by his successor Charles de Gaulle to develop an autonomous nuclear deterrent against potential threats. The French atomic bomb Gerboise Bleue was tested in the of February 1960. In 1966, de Gaulle further loosened his ties with the Western Allies by leaving NATO.
Britain had a treaty with Jordan, and had a plan (Cordage) to give assistance to Jordan in the event of an attack by Israel. This led to the First Lord of the Admiralty (Hailsham) sending a memo to Eden on the 2nd of October 1956 proposing the use of the light cruiser HMS Royalist for Cordage as well as Musketeer. HMS Royalist had just been modernised as an anti-aircraft radar picket ship, and was regarded as the most suitable ship for protection against the Mystère fighter-bombers supplied by France to Israel. But HMS Royalist had just been transferred to the Royal New Zealand Navy, and New Zealand’s Prime Minister Sidney Holland did not in the end allow the Royalist to be used with the British fleet in the Mediterranean for Cordage or Musketeer (where her presence would indicate support by New Zealand). The memo indicates that Hailsham did not know of the negotiations of Eden and Lloyd with France and Israel for concerted moves against Egypt.
Launched without a clear aim other than revenge, with the abandonment of international diplomacy, Operation Musketeer was a failure in strategic terms. By mischance it covered the Soviet Union’s military intervention in Hungary on the 4th of November. On this issue and, more generally, on the principle of premature military action against Egypt, the operation divided public opinion in the UK. It demonstrated the limitations of the UK’s military capacity, and exposed errors in several staff functions, notably intelligence and movement control. Tactically successful, both in the sea and airborne assaults and the subsequent brief occupation, it was undertaken on the margin of capability. It was the last venture of its kind.
Order of battle
Most French units involved came from the 10th Parachute Division (10e DP).
2nd Colonial Infantry Parachute Regiment (2e RPC).
11th Shock Parachute Regiment (11e Choc).
1st Foreign Parachute Regiment (1er REP).
4 Commandos Marine:
Commando de Montfort
Commando de Penfentenyo
Two squadrons of the 2nd Foreign Cavalry Regiment (2e REC) comprising AMX-13 tanks.
Two squadrons of M47 Patton tanks.
One sapper company.
Royal Air Force
No. 1 Squadron RAF with Hawker Hunter F.5’s.
No. 9 Squadron RAF with English Electric Canberra B.6’s.
No. 10 Squadron RAF with Canberra B.2’s.
No. 12 Squadron RAF with Canberra B.6’s.
No. 15 Squadron RAF with Canberra B.2’s.
No. 18 Squadron RAF with Canberra B.2’s.
No. 27 Squadron RAF with Canberra B.2’s.
No. 30 Squadron RAF with Vickers Valetta C.1’s.
No. 34 Squadron RAF with Hunter F.5’s.
No. 44 Squadron RAF with Canberra B.2’s.
No. 61 Squadron RAF with Canberra B.2’s.
No. 99 Squadron RAF with Handley Page Hastings C.1 & C.2’s.
No. 101 Squadron RAF with Canberra B.6’s.
No. 109 Squadron RAF with Canberra B.6’s.
No. 138 Squadron RAF with Vickers Valiant B.1’s, B(PR) 1’s, B(PR)K 1’s and B(K) 1’s.
No. 139 Squadron RAF with Canberra B.6’s.
No. 148 Squadron RAF with Valiant B.1’s, B(PR) 1’s, B(PR)K 1’s and B(K) 1’s.
No. 207 Squadron RAF with Valiant B.1’s, B(PR) 1’s and B(K) 1’s.
No. 214 Squadron RAF with Valiant B.1’s, B(PR) 1’s, B(PR)K 1’s and B(K) 1’s.
No. 511 Squadron RAF with Hastings C.1 & C.2’s.
The Parachute Regiment, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Battalions
Guards Independent Parachute Company
6th Royal Tank Regiment
1st Royal Dragoons
1st Battalion Royal West Kent Regiment
1st Battalion, the Royal Scots
1st Battalion The Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regt.)
Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry
Highland Light Infantry
Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders
York and Lancaster Regiment
Royal Warwickshire Regiment
1st Battalion West Yorkshire Regiment
Royal Berkshire Regiment – anti-tank platoon only
3rd Battalion Grenadier Guards – one machine gun platoon only
Royal Artillery, units from
20th Field Regiment
23rd Field Regiment
32nd Medium Regiment
33rd Parachute Regiment
34th Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment
41st Field Regiment
80th Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment
These were supported by units from:
Royal Military Police
Royal Electrical Mechanical Engineers
Royal Army Ordnance Corps
Royal Pioneer Corps
Royal Army Service Corps
3rd Brigade Royal Marines Commando
1st Destroyer Squadron; HMS Chieftain, HMS Chevron, HMS Chaplet
2nd Destroyer Squadron; HMS Daring
3rd Destroyer Squadron; HMS Armada, HMS Barfleur, HMS Gravelines, HMS St. Kitts
4th Destroyer Squadron; HMS Alamein, HMS Corunna, HMS Barrosa, HMS Agincourt
6th Destroyer Squadron: HMS Cavendish
5th Frigate Squadron: HMS Wakeful, HMS Whirlwind, HMS Wizard
6th Frigate Squadron: HMS Undine, HMS Urania, HMS Ulysses, HMS Ursa
Aircraft carriers: HMS Albion, HMS Bulwark, HMS Eagle, HMS Ocean, HMS Theseus
Tank landing ships: HMS Anzio, HMS Bastion, HMS Buttress, HMS Citadel, HMS Counterguard,
HMS Evan Gibb, HMS Empire Cymric, HMS Empire Cedric, HMS Empire Celtic, HMS Empire Doric, HMS Lofoten, HMS Loftus, HMS Empire Baltic, HMS Portcullis, HMS Parapet, HMS Puncher, HMS Rampart, HMS Ravager, HMS Redoubt, HMS Striker, HMS Reggio, HMS Sallyport, HMS Salerno, HMS Sulva
Minesweepers: HMS Appleton, HMS Darlaston, HMS Letterson, HMS Leverton, HMS Penstone
Net-layers: HMS Barnstone, HMS Barhill
Cruisers: HMS Bermuda, HMS Ceylon, HMS Jamaica, HMS Newfoundland
HMS Childers (destroyer)
HMS Comet (destroyer)
HMS Contest (destroyer)
HMS Decoy (destroyer)
HMS Defender (destroyer)
HMS Delight (destroyer)
HMS Diana (destroyer)
HMS Diamond (destroyer)
HMS Duchess (destroyer)
HMS Crane (sloop)
HMS Modeste (sloop)
HMS Meon (frigate)
HMS Dalrymple (survey vessel)
Submarine depot ships: HMS Forth, HMS Rampura
HMS Manxman (Minelayer)
HMS Tyne (Headquarters ship)
HMS Woodbridge Haven (Depot ship)
HMMRC1097 (Landing craft repair ship)
Submarines: HMS Sea Devil, HMS Sentinel, HMS Totem, HMS Trenchant, HMS Tudor (Believed to be in area at the time)
Royal Fleet Auxiliary
RFA Blue Ranger (tanker)
RFA Brown Ranger (tanker)
RFA Fort Sandusky (stores ship)
RFA Kinbrace (coastal salvage vessel)
RFA Spapool (water carrier)
RFA Tiderace (tanker)
RFA Tidereach (tanker)
RFA Tiderange (tanker)
RFA Wave Knight (tanker)
RFA Wave Sovereign (tanker)
RFA Warden (tug)
RFA Swin (salvage vessel)
RFA Uplifter (salvage vessel)
Civilian auxiliary ships
Ausdauer (chartered heavy-lifting vessel)
M/V Dispenser (salvage lifting vessel)
Empire Fowey (troopship)
Empire Gaelic (troopship)
Empire Ken (troopship)
Empire Parkeston (troopship)
Energie (chartered heavy-lifting vessel)
SS Kingsbury (troopship)
New Australia (troopship)
MV Salinas (cargo ship)
Royal New Zealand Navy
HMNZS Royalist (cruiser)
Sourced from Wikipedia