Charles Gordon-Lennox, the 5th Duke of Richmond and 5th Duke of Lennox, 5th Duke of Aubigny, KG PC (3rd of August 1791 – 21st of October 1860), styled Earl of March until in 1819, was a British soldier, politician and a prominent Conservative.
Background and education
Richmond was the son of Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond, and the former Lady Charlotte Gordon. He was educated at Westminster and Trinity College, Dublin.
Richmond (while Earl of March) served on Wellington’s staff in the Peninsular War, during which time he volunteered to join the 52nd (Oxfordshire) Regiment of Foot’s advance storming party on the fortress of Ciudad Rodrigo. He formally joined the 52nd Foot in 1813, and took command of a company of 52nd soldiers at Orthez in 1814, where he was severely wounded; the musket-ball in his chest was never removed. During the Battle of Waterloo he was ADC to the Prince of Orange, and following that man’s wounding, served as ADC to Wellington. Richmond was chiefly responsible for the belated institution in 1847 of the Military General Service Medal for all survivors of the campaigns between 1793 and 1814. (There had only hitherto been a Waterloo Medal). He campaigned in Parliament and also enlisted the interest of Queen Victoria. Richmond himself received the medal with eight clasps.
Richmond sat as Member of Parliament for Chichester between the years of 1812 and 1819. The latter year he succeeded his father in the dukedom and entered the House of Lords. He was a vehement opponent in the House of Lords of Roman Catholic emancipation, and at a later date a leader of the opposition to Peel’s free trade policy, as he was the president of the Central Agricultural Protection Society, which campaigned for preservation of the Corn Laws. Although a vigorous Conservative and Ultra-Tory for most of his career, Richmond’s anger with Wellington over Catholic Emancipation led him to lead the Ultra’s into joining Earl Grey’s reforming Whig government in 1830 (Lang, 1999). He served under Grey as Postmaster General between 1830 and 1834. He was sworn of the Privy Council in 1830. Richmond was also Lord Lieutenant of Sussex between 1835 and 1860 and was appointed a Knight of the Garter in 1829.
In 1836, on inheriting the estates of his mother’s brother, the fifth and last Duke of Gordon, he assumed the name of Gordon before that of Lennox.
Richmond married Lady Caroline, daughter of Henry Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey and Lady Caroline Villiers, on the 10th of April in 1817. The couple had five sons and five daughters, including:
Charles Gordon-Lennox, 6th Duke of Richmond (1818–1903)
Lady Caroline Amelia Gordon-Lennox (18th June 1819 – 30 April 1890), married John Ponsonby, 5th Earl of Bessborough
Fitzroy George Charles Gordon-Lennox (11th June 1820 – 1841), lost at sea aboard SS President
Rt. Hon. Lord Henry Charles George Gordon-Lennox (2nd November 1821 – 29 August 1886), married Amelia Brooman and left no issue
Captain Lord Alexander Francis Charles Gordon-Lennox (14th June 1825 – 22 January 1892), married Emily Towneley and left issue
Lady Augusta Catherine Gordon-Lennox (14th January 1827 – 3 April 1904), married Prince Edward of Saxe-Weimar (1823–1902)
Lord George Charles Gordon-Lennox (22nd October 1829
Sourced from Wikipedia